Univariate Distributions

Univariate Distributions

Univariate distributions are the distributions whose variate forms are Univariate (i.e each sample is a scalar). Abstract types for univariate distributions:

const UnivariateDistribution{S<:ValueSupport} = Distribution{Univariate,S}

const DiscreteUnivariateDistribution   = Distribution{Univariate, Discrete}
const ContinuousUnivariateDistribution = Distribution{Univariate, Continuous}

Common Interface

A series of methods are implemented for each univariate distribution, which provide useful functionalities such as moment computation, pdf evaluation, and sampling (i.e. random number generation).

Parameter Retrieval

Note: params are defined for all univariate distributions, while other parameter retrieval methods are only defined for those distributions for which these parameters make sense. See below for details.

StatsBase.paramsMethod.
params(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return a tuple of parameters. Let d be a distribution of type D, then D(params(d)...) will construct exactly the same distribution as $d$.

source
scale(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the scale parameter.

source
location(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the location parameter.

source
shape(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the shape parameter.

source
Distributions.rateMethod.
rate(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the rate parameter.

source
ncategories(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the number of categories.

source
ntrials(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the number of trials.

source
StatsBase.dofMethod.
dof(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get the degrees of freedom.

source

For distributions for which success and failure have a meaning, the following methods are defined:

succprob(d::DiscreteUnivariateDistribution)

Get the probability of success.

source
failprob(d::DiscreteUnivariateDistribution)

Get the probability of failure.

source

Computation of statistics

Base.maximumMethod.
maximum(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return the maximum of the support of d.

source
Base.minimumMethod.
minimum(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return the minimum of the support of d.

source
Base.extremaMethod.
extrema(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return the minimum and maximum of the support of d as a 2-tuple.

source
Statistics.meanMethod.
mean(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Compute the expectation.

source
Statistics.varMethod.
var(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Compute the variance. (A generic std is provided as std(d) = sqrt(var(d)))

source
Statistics.stdMethod.
std(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return the standard deviation of distribution d, i.e. sqrt(var(d)).

source
Statistics.medianMethod.
median(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Return the median value of distribution d.

source
StatsBase.modesMethod.
modes(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Get all modes (if this makes sense).

source
StatsBase.modeMethod.
mode(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Returns the first mode.

source
StatsBase.skewnessMethod.
skewness(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Compute the skewness.

source
StatsBase.kurtosisMethod.
kurtosis(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Compute the excessive kurtosis.

source
isplatykurtic(d)

Return whether d is platykurtic (i.e kurtosis(d) > 0).

source
isleptokurtic(d)

Return whether d is leptokurtic (i.e kurtosis(d) < 0).

source
ismesokurtic(d)

Return whether d is mesokurtic (i.e kurtosis(d) == 0).

source
StatsBase.entropyMethod.
entropy(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Compute the entropy value of distribution d.

source
StatsBase.entropyMethod.
entropy(d::UnivariateDistribution, b::Real)

Compute the entropy value of distribution d, w.r.t. a given base.

source
Distributions.mgfMethod.
mgf(d::UnivariateDistribution, t)

Evaluate the moment generating function of distribution d.

source
Distributions.cfMethod.
cf(d::UnivariateDistribution, t)

Evaluate the characteristic function of distribution d.

source

Probability Evaluation

insupport(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Any)

When x is a scalar, it returns whether x is within the support of d (e.g., insupport(d, x) = minimum(d) <= x <= maximum(d)). When x is an array, it returns whether every element in x is within the support of d.

Generic fallback methods are provided, but it is often the case that insupport can be done more efficiently, and a specialized insupport is thus desirable. You should also override this function if the support is composed of multiple disjoint intervals.

source
Distributions.pdfMethod.
pdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

Evaluate the probability density (mass) at x.

See also: logpdf.

source
logpdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

Evaluate the logarithm of probability density (mass) at x. Whereas there is a fallback implemented logpdf(d, x) = log(pdf(d, x)). Relying on this fallback is not recommended in general, as it is prone to overflow or underflow.

source
loglikelihood(d::UnivariateDistribution, X::AbstractArray)

The log-likelihood of distribution d w.r.t. all samples contained in array x.

source
Distributions.cdfMethod.
cdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

Evaluate the cumulative probability at x.

See also ccdf, logcdf, and logccdf.

source
logcdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

The logarithm of the cumulative function value(s) evaluated at x, i.e. log(cdf(x)).

source
Distributions.ccdfMethod.
ccdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

The complementary cumulative function evaluated at x, i.e. 1 - cdf(d, x).

source
logccdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, x::Real)

The logarithm of the complementary cumulative function values evaluated at x, i.e. log(ccdf(x)).

source
quantile(d::UnivariateDistribution, q::Real)

Evaluate the inverse cumulative distribution function at q.

See also: cquantile, invlogcdf, and invlogccdf.

source
cquantile(d::UnivariateDistribution, q::Real)

The complementary quantile value, i.e. quantile(d, 1-q).

source
invlogcdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, lp::Real)

The inverse function of logcdf.

source
invlogcdf(d::UnivariateDistribution, lp::Real)

The inverse function of logcdf.

source

Sampling (Random number generation)

Base.randMethod.
rand(d::UnivariateDistribution)

Generate a scalar sample from d. The general fallback is quantile(d, rand()).

rand(d::UnivariateDistribution, n::Int) -> Vector

Generates a vector of n random scalar samples from d. The general fallback is to pick random samples from sampler(d).

source
Random.rand!Method.
rand!(d::UnivariateDistribution, A::AbstractArray)

Populates the array A with scalar samples from d. The general fallback is to pick random samples from sampler(d).

source

Continuous Distributions

Arcsine(a,b)

The Arcsine distribution has probability density function

\[f(x) = \frac{1}{\pi \sqrt{(x - a) (b - x)}}, \quad x \in [a, b]\]
Arcsine()        # Arcsine distribution with support [0, 1]
Arcsine(b)       # Arcsine distribution with support [0, b]
Arcsine(a, b)    # Arcsine distribution with support [a, b]

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
minimum(d)       # Get the lower bound, i.e. a
maximum(d)       # Get the upper bound, i.e. b
location(d)      # Get the left bound, i.e. a
scale(d)         # Get the span of the support, i.e. b - a

External links

source
Beta(α,β)

The Beta distribution has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \beta) = \frac{1}{B(\alpha, \beta)} x^{\alpha - 1} (1 - x)^{\beta - 1}, \quad x \in [0, 1]\]

The Beta distribution is related to the Gamma distribution via the property that if $X \sim \operatorname{Gamma}(\alpha)$ and $Y \sim \operatorname{Gamma}(\beta)$ independently, then $X / (X + Y) \sim Beta(\alpha, \beta)$.

Beta()        # equivalent to Beta(1, 1)
Beta(a)       # equivalent to Beta(a, a)
Beta(a, b)    # Beta distribution with shape parameters a and b

params(d)     # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)

External links

source
BetaPrime(α,β)

The Beta prime distribution has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \beta) = \frac{1}{B(\alpha, \beta)} x^{\alpha - 1} (1 + x)^{- (\alpha + \beta)}, \quad x > 0\]

The Beta prime distribution is related to the Beta distribution via the relation ship that if $X \sim \operatorname{Beta}(\alpha, \beta)$ then $\frac{X}{1 - X} \sim \operatorname{BetaPrime}(\alpha, \beta)$

BetaPrime()        # equivalent to BetaPrime(1, 1)
BetaPrime(a)       # equivalent to BetaPrime(a, a)
BetaPrime(a, b)    # Beta prime distribution with shape parameters a and b

params(d)          # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)

External links

source
Biweight(μ, σ)
source
Cauchy(μ, σ)

The Cauchy distribution with location μ and scale σ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma) = \frac{1}{\pi \sigma \left(1 + \left(\frac{x - \mu}{\sigma} \right)^2 \right)}\]
Cauchy()         # Standard Cauchy distribution, i.e. Cauchy(0, 1)
Cauchy(u)        # Cauchy distribution with location u and unit scale, i.e. Cauchy(u, 1)
Cauchy(u, b)     # Cauchy distribution with location u and scale b

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, b)
location(d)      # Get the location parameter, i.e. u
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
Chi(ν)

The Chi distribution ν degrees of freedom has probability density function

\[f(x; k) = \frac{1}{\Gamma(k/2)} 2^{1 - k/2} x^{k-1} e^{-x^2/2}, \quad x > 0\]

It is the distribution of the square-root of a Chisq variate.

Chi(k)       # Chi distribution with k degrees of freedom

params(d)    # Get the parameters, i.e. (k,)
dof(d)       # Get the degrees of freedom, i.e. k

External links

source
Chisq(ν)

The Chi squared distribution (typically written χ²) with ν degrees of freedom has the probability density function

\[f(x; k) = \frac{x^{k/2 - 1} e^{-x/2}}{2^{k/2} \Gamma(k/2)}, \quad x > 0.\]

If ν is an integer, then it is the distribution of the sum of squares of ν independent standard Normal variates.

Chisq(k)     # Chi-squared distribution with k degrees of freedom

params(d)    # Get the parameters, i.e. (k,)
dof(d)       # Get the degrees of freedom, i.e. k

External links

source
Cosine(μ, σ)

A raised Cosine distribution.

External link:

source
Epanechnikov(μ, σ)
source
Erlang(α,θ)

The Erlang distribution is a special case of a Gamma distribution with integer shape parameter.

Erlang()       # Erlang distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. Erlang(1, 1)
Erlang(a)      # Erlang distribution with shape parameter a and unit scale, i.e. Erlang(a, 1)
Erlang(a, s)   # Erlang distribution with shape parameter a and scale b

External links

source
Exponential(θ)

The Exponential distribution with scale parameter θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \theta) = \frac{1}{\theta} e^{-\frac{x}{\theta}}, \quad x > 0\]
Exponential()      # Exponential distribution with unit scale, i.e. Exponential(1)
Exponential(b)     # Exponential distribution with scale b

params(d)          # Get the parameters, i.e. (b,)
scale(d)           # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b
rate(d)            # Get the rate parameter, i.e. 1 / b

External links

source
FDist(ν1, ν2)

The F distribution has probability density function

\[f(x; \nu_1, \nu_2) = \frac{1}{x B(\nu_1/2, \nu_2/2)} \sqrt{\frac{(\nu_1 x)^{\nu_1} \cdot \nu_2^{\nu_2}}{(\nu_1 x + \nu_2)^{\nu_1 + \nu_2}}}, \quad x>0\]

It is related to the Chisq distribution via the property that if $X_1 \sim \operatorname{Chisq}(\nu_1)$ and $X_2 \sim \operatorname{Chisq}(\nu_2)$, then $(X_1/\nu_1) / (X_2 / \nu_2) \sim \operatorname{FDist}(\nu_1, \nu_2)$.

FDist(ν1, ν2)     # F-Distribution with parameters ν1 and ν2

params(d)         # Get the parameters, i.e. (ν1, ν2)

External links

source
Frechet(α,θ)

The Fréchet distribution with shape α and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \theta) = \frac{\alpha}{\theta} \left( \frac{x}{\theta} \right)^{-\alpha-1} e^{-(x/\theta)^{-\alpha}}, \quad x > 0\]
Frechet()        # Fréchet distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. Frechet(1, 1)
Frechet(a)       # Fréchet distribution with shape a and unit scale, i.e. Frechet(a, 1)
Frechet(a, b)    # Fréchet distribution with shape a and scale b

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
shape(d)         # Get the shape parameter, i.e. a
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
Gamma(α,θ)

The Gamma distribution with shape parameter α and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \theta) = \frac{x^{\alpha-1} e^{-x/\theta}}{\Gamma(\alpha) \theta^\alpha}, \quad x > 0\]
Gamma()          # Gamma distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. Gamma(1, 1)
Gamma(α)         # Gamma distribution with shape α and unit scale, i.e. Gamma(α, 1)
Gamma(α, θ)      # Gamma distribution with shape α and scale θ

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (α, θ)
shape(d)         # Get the shape parameter, i.e. α
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. θ

External links

source
GeneralizedExtremeValue(μ, σ, ξ)

The Generalized extreme value distribution with shape parameter ξ, scale σ and location μ has probability density function

\[f(x; \xi, \sigma, \mu) = \begin{cases} \frac{1}{\sigma} \left[ 1+\left(\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}\right)\xi\right]^{-1/\xi-1} \exp\left\{-\left[ 1+ \left(\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}\right)\xi\right]^{-1/\xi} \right\} & \text{for } \xi \neq 0 \\\ \frac{1}{\sigma} \exp\left\{-\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}\right\} \exp\left\{-\exp\left[-\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}\right]\right\} & \text{for } \xi = 0 \\ \end{cases}\]

for

\[x \in \begin{cases} \left[ \mu - \frac{\sigma}{\xi}, + \infty \right) & \text{for } \xi > 0 \\ \left( - \infty, + \infty \right) & \text{for } \xi = 0 \\ \left( - \infty, \mu - \frac{\sigma}{\xi} \right] & \text{for } \xi < 0 \end{cases}\]
GeneralizedExtremeValue(m, s, k)      # Generalized Pareto distribution with shape k, scale s and location m.

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (m, s, k)
location(d)     # Get the location parameter, i.e. m
scale(d)        # Get the scale parameter, i.e. s
shape(d)        # Get the shape parameter, i.e. k (sometimes called c)

External links

source
GeneralizedPareto(μ, σ, ξ)

The Generalized Pareto distribution with shape parameter ξ, scale σ and location μ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma, \xi) = \begin{cases} \frac{1}{\sigma}(1 + \xi \frac{x - \mu}{\sigma} )^{-\frac{1}{\xi} - 1} & \text{for } \xi \neq 0 \\ \frac{1}{\sigma} e^{-\frac{\left( x - \mu \right) }{\sigma}} & \text{for } \xi = 0 \end{cases}~, \quad x \in \begin{cases} \left[ \mu, \infty \right] & \text{for } \xi \geq 0 \\ \left[ \mu, \mu - \sigma / \xi \right] & \text{for } \xi < 0 \end{cases}\]
GeneralizedPareto()             # Generalized Pareto distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. GeneralizedPareto(0, 1, 1)
GeneralizedPareto(k, s)         # Generalized Pareto distribution with shape k and scale s, i.e. GeneralizedPareto(0, k, s)
GeneralizedPareto(m, k, s)      # Generalized Pareto distribution with shape k, scale s and location m.

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (m, s, k)
location(d)     # Get the location parameter, i.e. m
scale(d)        # Get the scale parameter, i.e. s
shape(d)        # Get the shape parameter, i.e. k

External links

source
Gumbel(μ, θ)

The Gumbel distribution with location μ and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \theta) = \frac{1}{\theta} e^{-(z + e^-z)}, \quad \text{ with } z = \frac{x - \mu}{\theta}\]
Gumbel()            # Gumbel distribution with zero location and unit scale, i.e. Gumbel(0, 1)
Gumbel(u)           # Gumbel distribution with location u and unit scale, i.e. Gumbel(u, 1)
Gumbel(u, b)        # Gumbel distribution with location u and scale b

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, b)
location(d)      # Get the location parameter, i.e. u
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
InverseGamma(α, θ)

The inverse Gamma distribution with shape parameter α and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \theta) = \frac{\theta^\alpha x^{-(\alpha + 1)}}{\Gamma(\alpha)} e^{-\frac{\theta}{x}}, \quad x > 0\]

It is related to the Gamma distribution: if $X \sim \operatorname{Gamma}(\alpha, \beta)$, then $1 / X \sim \operatorname{InverseGamma}(\alpha, \beta^{-1})$.

InverseGamma()        # Inverse Gamma distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. InverseGamma(1, 1)
InverseGamma(α)       # Inverse Gamma distribution with shape α and unit scale, i.e. InverseGamma(α, 1)
InverseGamma(α, θ)    # Inverse Gamma distribution with shape α and scale θ

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (α, θ)
shape(d)         # Get the shape parameter, i.e. α
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. θ

External links

source
InverseGaussian(μ,λ)

The inverse Gaussian distribution with mean μ and shape λ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \lambda) = \sqrt{\frac{\lambda}{2\pi x^3}} \exp\!\left(\frac{-\lambda(x-\mu)^2}{2\mu^2x}\right), \quad x > 0\]
InverseGaussian()              # Inverse Gaussian distribution with unit mean and unit shape, i.e. InverseGaussian(1, 1)
InverseGaussian(mu),           # Inverse Gaussian distribution with mean mu and unit shape, i.e. InverseGaussian(u, 1)
InverseGaussian(mu, lambda)    # Inverse Gaussian distribution with mean mu and shape lambda

params(d)           # Get the parameters, i.e. (mu, lambda)
mean(d)             # Get the mean parameter, i.e. mu
shape(d)            # Get the shape parameter, i.e. lambda

External links

source
Kolmogorov()

Kolmogorov distribution defined as

\[\sup_{t \in [0,1]} |B(t)|\]

where $B(t)$ is a Brownian bridge used in the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for large n.

source
KSDist(n)

Distribution of the (two-sided) Kolmogorov-Smirnoff statistic

\[D_n = \sup_x | \hat{F}_n(x) -F(x)| \sqrt(n)\]

$D_n$ converges a.s. to the Kolmogorov distribution.

source
KSOneSided(n)

Distribution of the one-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic:

\[D^+_n = \sup_x (\hat{F}_n(x) -F(x))\]
source
Laplace(μ,θ)

The Laplace distribution with location μ and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \beta) = \frac{1}{2 \beta} \exp \left(- \frac{|x - \mu|}{\beta} \right)\]
Laplace()       # Laplace distribution with zero location and unit scale, i.e. Laplace(0, 1)
Laplace(u)      # Laplace distribution with location u and unit scale, i.e. Laplace(u, 1)
Laplace(u, b)   # Laplace distribution with location u ans scale b

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, b)
location(d)     # Get the location parameter, i.e. u
scale(d)        # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
Levy(μ, σ)

The Lévy distribution with location μ and scale σ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma) = \sqrt{\frac{\sigma}{2 \pi (x - \mu)^3}} \exp \left( - \frac{\sigma}{2 (x - \mu)} \right), \quad x > \mu\]
Levy()         # Levy distribution with zero location and unit scale, i.e. Levy(0, 1)
Levy(u)        # Levy distribution with location u and unit scale, i.e. Levy(u, 1)
Levy(u, c)     # Levy distribution with location u ans scale c

params(d)      # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, c)
location(d)    # Get the location parameter, i.e. u

External links

source
Logistic(μ,θ)

The Logistic distribution with location μ and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \theta) = \frac{1}{4 \theta} \mathrm{sech}^2 \left( \frac{x - \mu}{2 \theta} \right)\]
Logistic()       # Logistic distribution with zero location and unit scale, i.e. Logistic(0, 1)
Logistic(u)      # Logistic distribution with location u and unit scale, i.e. Logistic(u, 1)
Logistic(u, b)   # Logistic distribution with location u ans scale b

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, b)
location(d)     # Get the location parameter, i.e. u
scale(d)        # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
LogNormal(μ,σ)

The log normal distribution is the distribution of the exponential of a Normal variate: if $X \sim \operatorname{Normal}(\mu, \sigma)$ then $\exp(X) \sim \operatorname{LogNormal}(\mu,\sigma)$. The probability density function is

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma) = \frac{1}{x \sqrt{2 \pi \sigma^2}} \exp \left( - \frac{(\log(x) - \mu)^2}{2 \sigma^2} \right), \quad x > 0\]
LogNormal()          # Log-normal distribution with zero log-mean and unit scale
LogNormal(mu)        # Log-normal distribution with log-mean mu and unit scale
LogNormal(mu, sig)   # Log-normal distribution with log-mean mu and scale sig

params(d)            # Get the parameters, i.e. (mu, sig)
meanlogx(d)          # Get the mean of log(X), i.e. mu
varlogx(d)           # Get the variance of log(X), i.e. sig^2
stdlogx(d)           # Get the standard deviation of log(X), i.e. sig

External links

source
NoncentralBeta(α, β, λ)
source
NoncentralChisq(ν, λ)

The noncentral chi-squared distribution with ν degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter λ has the probability density function

\[f(x; \nu, \lambda) = \frac{1}{2} e^{-(x + \lambda)/2} \left( \frac{x}{\lambda} \right)^{\nu/4-1/2} I_{\nu/2-1}(\sqrt{\lambda x}), \quad x > 0\]

It is the distribution of the sum of squares of ν independent Normal variates with individual means $\mu_i$ and

\[\lambda = \sum_{i=1}^\nu \mu_i^2\]
NoncentralChisq(ν, λ)     # Noncentral chi-squared distribution with ν degrees of freedom and noncentrality parameter λ

params(d)    # Get the parameters, i.e. (ν, λ)

External links

source
NoncentralF(ν1, ν2, λ)
source
NoncentralT(ν, λ)
source
Normal(μ,σ)

The Normal distribution with mean μ and standard deviation σ≥0 has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi \sigma^2}} \exp \left( - \frac{(x - \mu)^2}{2 \sigma^2} \right)\]

Note that if σ == 0, then the distribution is a point mass concentrated at μ. Though not technically a continuous distribution, it is allowed so as to account for cases where σ may have underflowed, and the functions are defined by taking the pointwise limit as $σ → 0$.

Normal()          # standard Normal distribution with zero mean and unit variance
Normal(mu)        # Normal distribution with mean mu and unit variance
Normal(mu, sig)   # Normal distribution with mean mu and variance sig^2

params(d)         # Get the parameters, i.e. (mu, sig)
mean(d)           # Get the mean, i.e. mu
std(d)            # Get the standard deviation, i.e. sig

External links

source
NormalCanon(η, λ)

Canonical Form of Normal distribution

source
NormalInverseGaussian(μ,α,β,δ)

The Normal-inverse Gaussian distribution with location μ, tail heaviness α, asymmetry parameter β and scale δ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \alpha, \beta, \delta) = \frac{\alpha\delta K_1 \left(\alpha\sqrt{\delta^2 + (x - \mu)^2}\right)}{\pi \sqrt{\delta^2 + (x - \mu)^2}} \; e^{\delta \gamma + \beta (x - \mu)}\]

where $K_j$ denotes a modified Bessel function of the third kind.

External links

source
Pareto(α,θ)

The Pareto distribution with shape α and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \theta) = \frac{\alpha \theta^\alpha}{x^{\alpha + 1}}, \quad x \ge \theta\]
Pareto()            # Pareto distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. Pareto(1, 1)
Pareto(a)           # Pareto distribution with shape a and unit scale, i.e. Pareto(a, 1)
Pareto(a, b)        # Pareto distribution with shape a and scale b

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
shape(d)         # Get the shape parameter, i.e. a
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source
Rayleigh(σ)

The Rayleigh distribution with scale σ has probability density function

\[f(x; \sigma) = \frac{x}{\sigma^2} e^{-\frac{x^2}{2 \sigma^2}}, \quad x > 0\]

It is related to the Normal distribution via the property that if $X, Y \sim \operatorname{Normal}(0,\sigma)$, independently, then $\sqrt{X^2 + Y^2} \sim \operatorname{Rayleigh}(\sigma)$.

Rayleigh()       # Rayleigh distribution with unit scale, i.e. Rayleigh(1)
Rayleigh(s)      # Rayleigh distribution with scale s

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (s,)
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. s

External links

source
Semicircle(r)

The Wigner semicircle distribution with radius parameter r has probability density function

\[f(x; r) = \frac{2}{\pi r^2} \sqrt{r^2 - x^2}, \quad x \in [-r, r].\]
Semicircle(r)   # Wigner semicircle distribution with radius r

params(d)       # Get the radius parameter, i.e. (r,)

External links

source
StudentizedRange(ν, k)

The studentized range distribution has probability density function:

\[f(q; k, \nu) = \frac{\sqrt{2\pi}k(k - 1)\nu^{\nu/2}}{\Gamma{(\frac{\nu}{2})}2^{\nu/2 - 1}} \int_{0}^{\infty} {x^{\nu}\phi(\sqrt{\nu}x)} [\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} {\phi(u)\phi(u - qx)(\Phi(u) - \Phi(u - qx))^{k - 2}du]dx where \Phi(x) = \frac{1 + erf(\frac{x}{\sqrt{2}})}{2} (Normal Distribution CDF) \phi(x) = \Phi'(x) (Normal Distribution PDF)\]
StudentizedRange(ν, k)     # Studentized Range Distribution with parameters ν and k

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (ν, k)

External links

source
SymTriangularDist(μ,σ)

The Symmetric triangular distribution with location μ and scale σ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \sigma) = \frac{1}{\sigma} \left( 1 - \left| \frac{x - \mu}{\sigma} \right| \right), \quad \mu - \sigma \le x \le \mu + \sigma\]
SymTriangularDist()         # Symmetric triangular distribution with zero location and unit scale
SymTriangularDist(u)        # Symmetric triangular distribution with location u and unit scale
SymTriangularDist(u, s)     # Symmetric triangular distribution with location u and scale s

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (u, s)
location(d)     # Get the location parameter, i.e. u
scale(d)        # Get the scale parameter, i.e. s
source
TDist(ν)

The Students T distribution with ν degrees of freedom has probability density function

\[f(x; d) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{d} B(1/2, d/2)} \left( 1 + \frac{x^2}{d} \right)^{-\frac{d + 1}{2}}\]
TDist(d)      # t-distribution with d degrees of freedom

params(d)     # Get the parameters, i.e. (d,)
dof(d)        # Get the degrees of freedom, i.e. d

External links

Student's T distribution on Wikipedia

source
TriangularDist(a,b,c)

The triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and mode c has probability density function

\[f(x; a, b, c)= \begin{cases} 0 & \mathrm{for\ } x < a, \\ \frac{2(x-a)}{(b-a)(c-a)} & \mathrm{for\ } a \le x \leq c, \\[4pt] \frac{2(b-x)}{(b-a)(b-c)} & \mathrm{for\ } c < x \le b, \\[4pt] 0 & \mathrm{for\ } b < x, \end{cases}\]
TriangularDist(a, b)        # Triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b, and mode (a+b)/2
TriangularDist(a, b, c)     # Triangular distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b, and mode c

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b, c)
minimum(d)      # Get the lower bound, i.e. a
maximum(d)      # Get the upper bound, i.e. b
mode(d)         # Get the mode, i.e. c

External links

source
Triweight(μ, σ)
source
Uniform(a,b)

The continuous uniform distribution over an interval $[a, b]$ has probability density function

\[f(x; a, b) = \frac{1}{b - a}, \quad a \le x \le b\]
Uniform()        # Uniform distribution over [0, 1]
Uniform(a, b)    # Uniform distribution over [a, b]

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
minimum(d)       # Get the lower bound, i.e. a
maximum(d)       # Get the upper bound, i.e. b
location(d)      # Get the location parameter, i.e. a
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b - a

External links

source
VonMises(μ, κ)

The von Mises distribution with mean μ and concentration κ has probability density function

\[f(x; \mu, \kappa) = \frac{1}{2 \pi I_0(\kappa)} \exp \left( \kappa \cos (x - \mu) \right)\]
VonMises()       # von Mises distribution with zero mean and unit concentration
VonMises(κ)      # von Mises distribution with zero mean and concentration κ
VonMises(μ, κ)   # von Mises distribution with mean μ and concentration κ

External links

source
Weibull(α,θ)

The Weibull distribution with shape α and scale θ has probability density function

\[f(x; \alpha, \theta) = \frac{\alpha}{\theta} \left( \frac{x}{\theta} \right)^{\alpha-1} e^{-(x/\theta)^\alpha}, \quad x \ge 0\]
Weibull()        # Weibull distribution with unit shape and unit scale, i.e. Weibull(1, 1)
Weibull(a)       # Weibull distribution with shape a and unit scale, i.e. Weibull(a, 1)
Weibull(a, b)    # Weibull distribution with shape a and scale b

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
shape(d)         # Get the shape parameter, i.e. a
scale(d)         # Get the scale parameter, i.e. b

External links

source

Discrete Distributions

Bernoulli(p)

A Bernoulli distribution is parameterized by a success rate p, which takes value 1 with probability p and 0 with probability 1-p.

\[P(X = k) = \begin{cases} 1 - p & \quad \text{for } k = 0, \\ p & \quad \text{for } k = 1. \end{cases}\]
Bernoulli()    # Bernoulli distribution with p = 0.5
Bernoulli(p)   # Bernoulli distribution with success rate p

params(d)      # Get the parameters, i.e. (p,)
succprob(d)    # Get the success rate, i.e. p
failprob(d)    # Get the failure rate, i.e. 1 - p

External links:

source
succprob(d::DiscreteUnivariateDistribution)

Get the probability of success.

source
failprob(d::DiscreteUnivariateDistribution)

Get the probability of failure.

source
BetaBinomial(n,α,β)

A Beta-binomial distribution is the compound distribution of the Binomial distribution where the probability of success p is distributed according to the Beta. It has three parameters: n, the number of trials and two shape parameters α, β

\[P(X = k) = {n \choose k} B(k + \alpha, n - k + \beta) / B(\alpha, \beta), \quad \text{ for } k = 0,1,2, \ldots, n.\]
BetaBinomial(n, a, b)      # BetaBinomial distribution with n trials and shape parameters a, b

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (n, a, b)
ntrials(d)      # Get the number of trials, i.e. n

External links:

source
Binomial(n,p)

A Binomial distribution characterizes the number of successes in a sequence of independent trials. It has two parameters: n, the number of trials, and p, the probability of success in an individual trial, with the distribution:

\[P(X = k) = {n \choose k}p^k(1-p)^{n-k}, \quad \text{ for } k = 0,1,2, \ldots, n.\]
Binomial()      # Binomial distribution with n = 1 and p = 0.5
Binomial(n)     # Binomial distribution for n trials with success rate p = 0.5
Binomial(n, p)  # Binomial distribution for n trials with success rate p

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (n, p)
ntrials(d)      # Get the number of trials, i.e. n
succprob(d)     # Get the success rate, i.e. p
failprob(d)     # Get the failure rate, i.e. 1 - p

External links:

source
Categorical(p)

A Categorical distribution is parameterized by a probability vector p (of length K).

\[P(X = k) = p[k] \quad \text{for } k = 1, 2, \ldots, K.\]
Categorical(p)   # Categorical distribution with probability vector p
params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (p,)
probs(d)         # Get the probability vector, i.e. p
ncategories(d)   # Get the number of categories, i.e. K

Here, p must be a real vector, of which all components are nonnegative and sum to one.

Note: The input vector p is directly used as a field of the constructed distribution, without being copied.

Categorical is simply a type alias describing a special case of a DiscreteNonParametric distribution, so non-specialized methods defined for DiscreteNonParametric apply to Categorical as well.

External links:

source
DiscreteUniform(a,b)

A Discrete uniform distribution is a uniform distribution over a consecutive sequence of integers between a and b, inclusive.

\[P(X = k) = 1 / (b - a + 1) \quad \text{for } k = a, a+1, \ldots, b.\]
DiscreteUniform(a, b)   # a uniform distribution over {a, a+1, ..., b}

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (a, b)
span(d)         # Get the span of the support, i.e. (b - a + 1)
probval(d)      # Get the probability value, i.e. 1 / (b - a + 1)
minimum(d)      # Return a
maximum(d)      # Return b

External links

source
DiscreteNonParametric(xs, ps)

A Discrete nonparametric distribution explicitly defines an arbitrary probability mass function in terms of a list of real support values and their corresponding probabilities

d = DiscreteNonParametric(xs, ps)

params(d)  # Get the parameters, i.e. (xs, ps)
support(d) # Get a sorted AbstractVector describing the support (xs) of the distribution
probs(d)   # Get a Vector of the probabilities (ps) associated with the support

External links

source
Geometric(p)

A Geometric distribution characterizes the number of failures before the first success in a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials with success rate p.

\[P(X = k) = p (1 - p)^k, \quad \text{for } k = 0, 1, 2, \ldots.\]
Geometric()    # Geometric distribution with success rate 0.5
Geometric(p)   # Geometric distribution with success rate p

params(d)      # Get the parameters, i.e. (p,)
succprob(d)    # Get the success rate, i.e. p
failprob(d)    # Get the failure rate, i.e. 1 - p

External links

source
Hypergeometric(s, f, n)

A Hypergeometric distribution describes the number of successes in n draws without replacement from a finite population containing s successes and f failures.

\[P(X = k) = {{{s \choose k} {f \choose {n-k}}}\over {s+f \choose n}}, \quad \text{for } k = \max(0, n - f), \ldots, \min(n, s).\]
Hypergeometric(s, f, n)  # Hypergeometric distribution for a population with
                         # s successes and f failures, and a sequence of n trials.

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (s, f, n)

External links

source
NegativeBinomial(r,p)

A Negative binomial distribution describes the number of failures before the rth success in a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials. It is parameterized by r, the number of successes, and p, the probability of success in an individual trial.

\[P(X = k) = {k + r - 1 \choose k} p^r (1 - p)^k, \quad \text{for } k = 0,1,2,\ldots.\]

The distribution remains well-defined for any positive r, in which case

\[P(X = k) = \frac{\Gamma(k+r)}{k! \Gamma(r)} p^r (1 - p)^k, \quad \text{for } k = 0,1,2,\ldots.\]
NegativeBinomial()        # Negative binomial distribution with r = 1 and p = 0.5
NegativeBinomial(r, p)    # Negative binomial distribution with r successes and success rate p

params(d)       # Get the parameters, i.e. (r, p)
succprob(d)     # Get the success rate, i.e. p
failprob(d)     # Get the failure rate, i.e. 1 - p

External links:

Note: The definition of the negative binomial distribution in Wolfram is different from the Wikipedia definition. In Wikipedia, r is the number of failures and k is the number of successes.

source
Poisson(λ)

A Poisson distribution descibes the number of independent events occurring within a unit time interval, given the average rate of occurrence λ.

\[P(X = k) = \frac{\lambda^k}{k!} e^{-\lambda}, \quad \text{ for } k = 0,1,2,\ldots.\]
Poisson()        # Poisson distribution with rate parameter 1
Poisson(lambda)       # Poisson distribution with rate parameter lambda

params(d)        # Get the parameters, i.e. (λ,)
mean(d)          # Get the mean arrival rate, i.e. λ

External links:

source
PoissonBinomial(p)

A Poisson-binomial distribution describes the number of successes in a sequence of independent trials, wherein each trial has a different success rate. It is parameterized by a vector p (of length $K$), where $K$ is the total number of trials and p[i] corresponds to the probability of success of the ith trial.

\[P(X = k) = \sum\limits_{A\in F_k} \prod\limits_{i\in A} p[i] \prod\limits_{j\in A^c} (1-p[j]), \quad \text{ for } k = 0,1,2,\ldots,K,\]

where $F_k$ is the set of all subsets of $k$ integers that can be selected from $\{1,2,3,...,K\}$.

PoissonBinomial(p)   # Poisson Binomial distribution with success rate vector p

params(d)            # Get the parameters, i.e. (p,)
succprob(d)          # Get the vector of success rates, i.e. p
failprob(d)          # Get the vector of failure rates, i.e. 1-p

External links:

source
Skellam(μ1, μ2)

A Skellam distribution describes the difference between two independent Poisson variables, respectively with rate μ1 and μ2.

\[P(X = k) = e^{-(\mu_1 + \mu_2)} \left( \frac{\mu_1}{\mu_2} \right)^{k/2} I_k(2 \sqrt{\mu_1 \mu_2}) \quad \text{for integer } k\]

where $I_k$ is the modified Bessel function of the first kind.

Skellam(mu1, mu2)   # Skellam distribution for the difference between two Poisson variables,
                    # respectively with expected values mu1 and mu2.

params(d)           # Get the parameters, i.e. (mu1, mu2)

External links:

source

Vectorized evaluation

Vectorized computation and inplace vectorized computation have been deprecated.